TheWorldCounts, 15 June, A billion planets, One Earth… How will our continuously growing population affect our way of life, our planet, our environment? The effect of growing population will be an increased demand for resources and space.
Effects of rapid population increase Rapid population expansion has had important demographic and social effects. Two examples are especially illuminating.
In South America the proportion of the population under 15 years is still relatively high. As a consequence, the group of people in their productive working years is greatly reduced. That high ratio creates a heavier burden for the working group, while the economy is not able to raise the productivity level needed to compensate for it.
Another crucial consequence is the so-called urban explosion. Argentina and Uruguay have become two of the most urbanized countries in the world, but their urban growth has been the result of large-scale foreign immigration.
The dramatic increase in urban concentration began approximately in the s. In all of Latin Americathe proportion of urban centres with more than 10, inhabitants increased from one-fourth in to about three-fourths in 40 years.
South America now is one of the most urbanized regions in the world, following the industrially advanced areas. Although the rate of growth in larger cities has decreased sincethe urban population has continued to be concentrated in the larger districts: Migration has remained important, however, because of unfavourable conditions in the countryside.
Attempts to reverse urban bias have met with strong political opposition.
There also have been pressures from rural guerrilla movements, especially in Peru, which has caused an especially rapid migration to Lima. Development of the interior increasingly has relied on labour-saving technology, resulting in little incentive for migration.
As the largest cities face overcrowding and increased crime rates, a likely solution will be the urbanization of surrounding rural centres. Knapp The economy As a group, the economies of South American countries have changed profoundly since the s.
This has come as a result both of external conditions beyond the control of these nations and of internal policy decisions made to produce change. At the most fundamental level, these countries mainly are exporters of relatively low-value primary products and semiprocessed materials and importers of higher-value manufactured goods.
Great efforts have been made across the continent to expand the manufacturing sectors and to reduce dependency on imports. From the s until the late s, the majority of South American countries pursued economic development strategies based on a system of import substitution.
National governments used such measures as tariff and price policies to boost domestic industries and protect them from external competition. They also created joint ventures with private capital and established state-owned enterprises, especially in the heavy industries, utilities, and transportation.
They provided high subsidies for social programs in areas such as education and public housing. South American countries borrowed from foreign private banks and international lending institutions, such as the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bankto fund existing programs while also trying to expand their economic productivity through investments in areas such as transportation, energy generation, industrialization, and agricultural modernization.
However, many countries lived well beyond their means through the wholesale borrowing of funds at high interest rates on the world market. After decades of substantial progress in its economic development, the region as a whole regressed significantly in the s.
Between andgross domestic product GDP per capita measured in constant dollars declined for every South American country except Brazil, Colombiaand Chile. For a part of this same period, inflation rates skyrocketed in many countries, exceeding 3, percent per year in some instances.
Currency devaluation, austerity programs, and governmental disinvestment were the most commonly used remedies to check these problems.
The severity of their problems and lender demands prompted most South American countries to initiate fundamental restructurings of their economies.
Emphasis was placed on stimulating economic growth through selling state-owned enterprises to private investors and eliminating or severely curtailing support for social programs.
These actions were meant to increase productivity, reduce governmental expenditures, and diversify economic activities. Regional economic integration also had taken on importance in order to broaden markets.
These changes had the greatest impact on those lowest on the socioeconomic ladder. At the turn of the 21st century, the economies of many South American countries started to improve, and some of those countries were able to start paying off their debts. Notably, Ecuador adopted the U.
Argentina, the victim of an economic crisis in when it defaulted on its foreign debt, had begun a recovery by Increasing economic independence sparked a trend of nationalization along with the election of left-leaning leaders in Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Ecuador, and Bolivia. Resources Mineral resources South America is relatively rich in mineral resources.
However, they are highly localized: Nevertheless, South American economies have traditionally relied on a foundation of mining, fishing and forestry, agriculture, and non-exportable manufactures. Mineral fuels Large quantities of oil and natural gas are found in several areas within South America.
Venezuela also has major deposits of oil and natural gas in the area surrounding El Tigre.5 The consequences of rapid population growth This chapter shows that rapid population growthat rates above 2 percent, common in most developing countries todayacts as a brake on the effects on their natural resources, the pressures of internal migra-tion and urban growth, and the options that the.
The Population Reference Bureau in the US reported that the population of Sub-Saharan Africa – the poorest region in the continent – is rising faster than most of the rest of the world, and that "Rapid population growth makes it difficult for economies to create enough jobs to lift large numbers of people out of poverty." Seven of the Effects.
Population growth, even rapid population growth, can be a positive thing. Examples include corrections when the rapid growth may actually supply a population that wouldn't have existed to contribute otherwise.
With sustained growth and rapid growth though there is a risk of overpopulation. Increased diversity and human capital are among the positive effects of population growth.
It is often the negative effects, such as overcrowding, food and supply shortages and environmental damage that attract attention from politicians, economists and sociologists. The effects of population growth are varied and vast. While population growth, of any species, may be beneficial to a certain extent, there may come a time when the number in the population exceeds the natural resources available to sustain it.
Population growth does not lead to economic growth, the population with attempt to migrate to other countries, but more prosperous neighbours will bottle them in. In the future borders will be stronger.